August 11, 2014

Alzheimer's Disease: Type 3 Diabetes






(UPDATE: 4/20/2015: Ive written an e-book about this topic! You can find it here. You can download a free sample, which includes the table of contents, so you can see the breadth of topics covered and decide if it is a resource that will be helpful for you or your loved ones. I also encourage you to read the post I wrote about what's in the book and why I wrote it.)


Hey Everyone,  

I know I sometimes joke around in my blog posts, making light of serious issues and poking fun at things in general (such as my ongoing food label series, and the sarcastic comment I made about Mikey and his gluten-free cupcake in the book review of Health Food Junkies.) But today I am bringing you something serious. Very serious. If you know anyone suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, or someone who’s a caregiver to a loved one with this devastating condition, please keep reading.

Also keep reading if you are interested in learning about a growing view of Alzheimer's as another of the diseases of civilization, and largely the result of our modern diet, high in refined carbohydrates and vegetable/seed oils, and lower in cholesterol and healthful saturated fats.


In 2009, I read the book, Good Calories, Bad Calories, by Gary Taubes. Chapter 13, called “Dementia, Cancer, and Aging,” was the first place I ever heard Alzheimer’s disease explained as a possible result of insulin dysregulation and problems with glucose handling in the brain. (Turns out this isn't news. The medical literature to date supports this so strongly, in fact, that experts in the field have come to call Alzheimer’s “diabetes of the brain,” or even “type 3 diabetes.”) I found the notion fascinating, and that little seed stayed planted in my mind until it germinated and grew in the form of my graduate thesis in 2012.

Cholesterol: 
the brain’s best friend
I felt so strongly that this information needed to get out to the public that I knew I would turn it into an article I could submit for publication. Fearing that few people would take me seriously because I’m not an MD or PhD, I set the bar somewhat low for myself, and rather than submit my paper for publication in a peer-reviewed medical or scientific journal, I approached the Weston A. Price Foundation, which I knew would be receptive to my perspective, thanks to their vocal embrace of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat, and their strong opposition to the use of statin drugs.

I am happy to report that my article, “Type 3 Diabetes: Metabolic Causes of Alzheimer’s Disease,” has been published in the Summer 2014 volume of the foundation’s journal, Wise Traditions. I am less happy to report that the number of people who seem to care about this is approximately zero. It seems to have fallen down a black hole. I am not ashamed to admit that this is a crushing disappointment. (As of August 10th, an article about gluten, encouraging people to consume traditional sourdough breads, has 14 comments, whereas mine has 2 -- the second of which is my response to the first one. Go figure. People are more chatty about adding bread back to their diet than they are about a potential way to reverse Alzheimer's, but I digress.) I knew my article was going to be published for almost a year before it finally appeared in print. Obviously the mistake was mine, in allowing myself to imagine a potentially huge response. (The foundation was producing an issue on nutrition for the elderly, so they were holding off on my article until this issue, in which it would fit perfectly.)

I had been hoping it was going to make a big splash. My phone was going to be ringing; my email inbox was going to be stacked. It would be the start of me making a truly valuable contribution in this field. (And the start of my career really taking off.) Don’t get me wrong. I’m happy to help people who are already 90% of the way “there” with their diet and health and just want to tweak a few things, but there is a much, much bigger world out there, and people are quite literally dying because of 60+ years of misguided dietary advice. We’re not talking about someone wanting to drop to a new low in body fat percentage, or hit a new PR in CrossFit (not that there’s anything wrong with those goals). We’re talking about 75-year-old men and women who don’t know where they live, and who sometimes don’t recognize their own children. (Never mind that many of these folks are living in facilities where they no doubt receive RD-sanctioned breakfasts of white bread, jelly, egg whites, and skim milk! MADNESS. Don't get me started.)
Refined sugar: 
the opposite of brain food.

This is absolutely unconscionable. Based on my understanding of the scientific research, I am convinced Alzheimer’s disease doesn’t have a damn thing to do with aluminum toxicity, pesticides, or a crossword puzzle deficiency. The medical and scientific literature to date point almost unequivocally to a deep connection to glucose and insulin. (Almost unequivocally. We can never say anything with complete certainty when it comes to these things, right? Except that it is completely certain I will never permanently give up coffee. I may take occasional month-long breaks, but I’ll always go back to it. See? I can throw in one light-hearted thing in a serious post, hehheh.)

I think I have something unique and important to say about the etiology of Alzheimer’s, as well as nutritional and lifestyle strategies to prevent, slow, and possibly even reverse it. I say “unique,” because I have yet to see all of this information presented comprehensively and coherently, in a way that laypeople and medical professionals alike can understand. Because of the nature of clinical research, many researchers look at only a tiny piece of the puzzle: a single enzyme, a single protein, a single gene. Rarely does someone synthesize the collective findings, and moreover, make actionable recommendations applicable to free-living (and free eating!) people in the real-word. That is the fancy way of saying that, regarding Alzheimer’s disease, there is almost no one translating the scientific findings into concrete steps people can take right now to prevent this condition and potentially reverse it if it has already taken hold.

Sooooo, since I am quite passionate about this, and believe it is imperative that this information be made available to laypeople and healthcare professionals, in an uncharacteristic move, I am forcing myself to not give in to “learned helplessness.” (A psychological phenomenon you can read about here and here.) Rather than be bummed about the lack of response to the article so far and basically give up and resign myself to the likelihood that this will go nowhere and that I am a total waste of a human life, I am trying to get it out in as many places and to as many people as I can. Eventually, someone will see it—the kind of “someone” who can help me do something with this. (I linked to it in a comment on one of Robb Wolf’s podcasts as well as one on Kiefer’s Body io™ podcast.)

Beyond that, I have also now submitted it to a peer-reviewed journal that I think will be receptive to my premise, and I can only hope they won’t reject it outright due to my lack of credentials beyond a master’s. (*Crossing my fingers.*) Lack of the letters “MD” or “PhD” after my name shouldn’t preclude the possibility that I have something intelligent to contribute. Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf, and Chris Kresser, anyone? (Not that I am in any way suggesting I belong in company of that caliber. Im just making a point.)

So why am I bothering to tell you any of this? I suppose it’s one more way to get this out there. (Even to my teeny, tiny blog readership. I am grateful for each one of you!)

If a loved one is suffering from this debilitating illness, please click through and read the article. I will warn you, however, that the WAPF’s online formatting is a little screwy and makes things difficult to read, so if you’d prefer a more aesthetically pleasing pdf version, feel free to email me privately and I can send a copy. (tuitnutrition [at] gmail [dot com]) Also, the version the WAPF published is slightly condensed, so if anyone’s interested in reading the full version, with just a bit more scientific detail (more specific mention of various enzymes and biochemical pathways, that kind of thing), I can send that, too. To give you some idea of the angle, my original thesis was called “Alzheimer’s Disease as Type 3 Diabetes and the Potential Therapeutic Role of Reduced Carbohydrate Diets.” 

Please pass this along to as many people as you think will benefit.

Caregiving: almost as difficult 
as being the one with the illness. 
And if you happen to know of a neurologist, medical group, or Alzheimer’s care facility that you think would be receptive to this, I urge you to pass it along to them, too. I would love—LOVE—to start having a greater impact in all this. I am looking to collaborate with doctors who might be interested in a nutritional therapy for Alzheimer’s (or any neurological condition, for that matter -- MS, Parkinson's, ALS, etc.), as well as reach out to families who are struggling with this illness and would like professional guidance in their efforts to help their loved ones fight this via a diet that stands a much, much better chance of efficacy than any of the pharmaceutical drugs for Alzheimer's, most of which are utter failures.

In fact, the little project I’ve been mentioning here and there is a companion e-book to go along with the article. Even though, so far, there has been little to no interest in the information I’ve put out there (and its incredible implications), I’m far enough into the book that I don’t want to stop now, so I might as well finish it. And maybe someday, sometime, in a galaxy far, far away, someone will want to read it.

Thanks for reading, everyone.

As a bonus, here is the intro to my e-book:


Introduction: Why Did I Write This Book?


In the current landscape of conventional medicine, a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease amounts to a death sentence. Pharmaceutical treatments developed to date have been woefully ineffective, and modern medicine has little else to offer in the fight against this debilitating condition. The best doctors and therapists have to recommend is to keep the mind active, such as by taking up new hobbies or learning foreign languages. To imply that something as devastating as Alzheimer’s disease can be prevented by crosswords and Sudoku puzzles is irresponsible and downright insulting. The lack of progress regarding Alzheimer’s treatment is unacceptable, given the emotional, psychological, and financial tolls this disease exacts from its victims and their caregivers.

Cognitive decline is not inevitable as we age, and once it takes hold, it does not have to progress rapidly and unstoppably. Based on the theory of the etiology of Alzheimer’s as outlined in this book, there are ways to slow and possibly even reverse the course of this devastating degenerative disease.

Not many people are talking about these strategies, because not many people know about them. Even many physicians—including neurologists and geriatric specialists, who should be the most knowledgeable on these issues—are unfamiliar with this extremely promising therapeutic avenue. We cannot blame them for this lapse in expertise, however. The strategies discussed in this book are unconventional, and, in some ways, they’re relatively new. They don’t have decades of “gold standard” randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies backing them up. But as they say in scientific circles, “Absence of evidence does not imply evidence of absence.” The reason we don’t have piles upon piles of scientific evidence proving the efficacy of the methods discussed here is not because they don’t work, but because they’re unconventional, and very few doctors have the courage to step outside the normal standards of care and accepted courses of action to try something different, even though these same-old courses of action will get us the same-old results: namely, no results. No improvement for the Alzheimer’s sufferers, and no relief for their caregivers.

This is heartbreaking—and absolutely unnecessary. A review of the medical literature to date makes a strong case that Alzheimer’s disease is largely a metabolic problem—one whose most strongly affected target is the brain. And if Alzheimer’s disease is a metabolic problem, then the most promising avenue for addressing the root cause of the condition—and therefore potentially slowing and reversing it—is a metabolic solution. Specifically, this relates to a dietary overhaul and lifestyle modifications as they affect fuel metabolism on a cellular level throughout the body, but in particular, in the brain. 

If you have been fighting the ravages of this disease yourself, or if you are a caregiver watching a loved one’s painful transformation into someone unrecognizable, I present this information to you with the sincerest wishes that it helps you reclaim what has been so devastatingly taken from you.

There is hope.

There is a way out of the fog.

Continue reading, come to understand the science and the logic behind the recommendations in this book, have the courage to implement them, and start making your way out, now.


I wish you the best on your journey.

Amy Berger







Remember: Amy Berger, M.S., NTP, is not a physician and Tuit Nutrition, LLC, is not a medical practice. The information contained on this site is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any medical condition.

27 comments:

  1. Keep going! I found it trough a retweet from Robb Wolf.

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  2. Thank you SO MUCH!! My brother is 53, and was recently diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer's. I will pass this on.

    BTW, since going GF, then Primal, my UCTD symptoms have disappeared. I'm off anti-depressants, my skin is softer, and my hair is curly!

    I'm convinced that a great deal of the depression, anger and violence in today's world can be laid at the doorstep of gluten and grains.

    Keep up the good work Amy.
    love and light
    Carole

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    1. Thanks, Carole. I'm glad Primal is doing so many good things for you! :)

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    2. Amy, both my dad and mom have suffered from Alzheimers. Dad is gone and mom is in nursing home. I cannot do much for her but I can prevent me from going down that same road. I am very interested in reading your article/book on the subject. Cannot imagine why there is so little interest. Hang in there. Sometimes it takes a miracle! Maryanne

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  3. I read your article in Wise Traditions and reread it here. It makes sense. Just commenting to let you know that a lot of people read your material and like it.

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    1. Thank you. You have no idea how much I needed to hear this.

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  4. Keep on persevering.

    When I went from a high carbohydrate and sugar diet to a low one via Paleo/Primal, I broke though a brain fog that I had been having for a number of years, stopped being forgetful, and stopped having trouble getting the right words out when speaking. Is there are connection or just coincidence? There were other things I changed in my life, but improving my diet seems to be the biggest factor.

    I'll need to track down your longer article.

    Cheers,

    J.

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    1. In my opinion, there is absolutely a connection. One of the most commonly reported "side effects" when people first go lower-carb is clearer thinking and a lifting of the brain fog. :)

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    2. Same here! Low carb, even if 75-80% Primal compliant still yields clear clear results. Brain fog gone! Joint pain gone! That doctors refuse to absorb the latest research is appalling. Such a stance is killing theirs patients by not going forward.
      My mom has memory impairment, possibly dementia or AD.....but, my approach with her (I am responsible for her) is the same as mine, reduced carbs and restricted processed sugar bomb "foods" in the house.

      I am one of the 4...hundreds reading this.
      Keep on spreading the message!

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  5. Thank you for your research and your information. As a WAPF chapter leader I often face the same apparent (and discouraging) lack of interest in better nutrition even when the compelling need for it is obvious. Don't give up! Some people need to hear the same advice many times before they can start believing it. Since you are at least one of those times, you count!
    I found your website through your comment on Chris Kresser's article, which is another good way to get the information out.
    Carolyn

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    1. Thanks, Carolyn! Appreciate the vote of confidence. I'm certainly not going to give up. Things are just going more slowly than I'd like.

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  6. Hang in there. I read it through the link you posted on Chris Kresser's website. It's very comprehensive and well-thought out, based in science. I think Chris's on piece missed some very important points you made in your article. Often people have no clue they have insulin issues until way too much damage is done.

    My grandmother, my mom, and my uncle all had AD. I don't want to have APOE testing, but I'm assuming it's a very high risk. Adding to it, I've been insulin resistant since adolescence (at least) with PCOS (and I was very thin for most of my life!). I ate horribly for almost 5 decades of my life.

    So I "get it" and I'm working very hard to keep my insulin levels under control with a low carb/paleo diet and Metformin. I have to fight the medical establishment who doesn't think I need to do any of this because I'm not diabetic (yet. . . ). They do NOT get it. Every meal is a challenge to keep the meter low, keep my brain functioning.

    I am appalled at standard dietary recommendations (especially that diabetic breakfast tray in the hospital--SO true!). We are headed for an AD tsunami as all these people are aging with insulin overload. That will be the downfall of our country economically--our enemies need only sit back and wait.

    You are NOT whistling in the wind. You MUST keep fighting the good fight because there are others out there like me--directly in the crosshairs of this tragedy.

    You may want to contact Dr. David Perlmutter--you are on the same page and he has a growing audience he could introduce you to.

    Keep up the great work!

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    1. Thank you! Really appreciate the support. I'd love to work with Dr. Perlmutter; just not sure how to reach him directly. (Twitter doesn't seem to work, hehheh. He's probably too busy to read tweets from strangers.) Keep at it, yourself! Anything you can do to maintain better insulin sensitivity/blood glucose management will help in the long run. My mother was diabetic and recently passed away from cancer, so I am very much in the crosshairs, myself.

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    2. Hi Amy,
      First I would like to tell you that I’ve discovered your blog recently and that I’ve read quite a lot of your posts. I think your literary touch is interesting. I also appreciate how you seem to be open to new evidence and how you’re able to see things not only in white and black tones. There are shades in life!
      Anyway, I am particularly interested in the subject of Alzheimer disease : its onset and its progression. I read your article in Wise Traditions and I have a number of comments/questions for you. Make no mistake, I’m simply writing to challenge some of your views and to help me/you/us get a clearer picture of all this, I’m not an expert in the field of nutrition or AD. I always play devil’s advocate role (which means I would certainly have written the opposite if your positions had been different). So here I go (I will make two or three posts).

      You seem to make a good case of the fact that AD could well be caused by hyperinsulinism in the periphery and hypoinsulinism in CNS because of a BBB becoming insulin resistant. Glucose glycates in interstitial fluid, forming AGEs, inducing apopstosis. Ok, I get the picture. I won’t challenge this. But I do think you make some conclusions without any proofs.

      First, you say that AGEs induce lipid peroxidation, thus implying that too much carbs is bad. What about exogenous AGEs formed by heating meat? I mean, I am an ‘animal protein lover’ (to say the truth, I don’t remember the last meal I had without any animal proteins), but we have to be honest and look at the whole picture.

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    3. (following of the last post)
      But my main problem is not there. It’s about your conclusions and your recommendations to prevent (not to treat) AD. Ok, let’s, for the sake of the reflection, take for granted that insulin resistance is a major risk factor for AD. Then, we have to look at how to prevent IR through our lifestyle. Good, I still follow you. You make 6 recommendations which are:
      1. Cut the refined carbohydrates
      2. Balance your omega6/omega 3 ratio
      3. Increase cholesterol and saturated fat intake
      4. Increase your antioxidants intake
      5. Increase vitamins and minerals
      6. Increase physical activity (or movement as you would say on your blog)

      Nothing to say about 5 and 6. I’ll shut up (for those!) But as I am not the type fo guy who swallows everything that is told to him without questioning, that’s what I will do for 1-4.

      1. What do you consider ‘refined carbohydrate’? Low GI pasta (38)? Whole baked potato (85) or even wild rice (87)? What’s the definition of ‘refined carbohydrate’? We have examples of ancestral tribes eating a good share of carbs as part of their diet and not developing AD. I personally (but I don’t know a …. about this) think that the problem with carbs is not carbs per se, but what SOME of these carbs lack: antioxidants and nutrients. Lots of carbs? I think some/most of people’s body can handle them. No nutrients and antioxidants to help regulate glucose uptake and your whole hormonal system? NOW we have a problem. Anyway, do you mean the same as I with ‘refined carbohydrate’? If so, then I don’t think we should have a nationwide recommendation to cut on carbs, simply to get them from better sources (whole foods). And yes, I do think that properly prepared grains DO offer benefits. Whole-freshly-stone-ground-organic-sourdough rye bread (GLUTEN…) is an example.

      2. Balance your omega 6 / omega 3 intake. Well, again, I don’t think the problem is the amount of omega 6. I would say that the problem might be the lack of omega 3 in one’s diet (no matter how much O6 he or she gets) and the already rancid O6 found in heavily transformed or heated vegetable oils. I don’t think eating an avocado salad with nuts and olive oil dressing is bad because of O6 content. Again, just my humble opinion based on studies I’ve come across (no, sorry, I don’t keep them in a folder for citations).

      3. Increase cholesterol and saturated fat intake. Here, I must say that I would LOVE you to be right. As I said, I love meat, butter, I make my own tallow and lard. BUT, let’s look at the evidence. A 2008 metanalysis seems to clearly show that SFAs tend to decrease insulin sensivity (Dietary fats and prevention for type 2 diabetes : Risérus, Willett, Hu). O6 vegetable oils? Opposite! Sad, I know. Does that mean I cook with soybean and corn oils. I can’t, I don’t have those and don’t want them at home. But, evidence seems clear. Even without a caloric surplus. Even considering other lifestyle factors. Even blah blah blah… I know, really sad!

      4. Increase your antioxidants intake. Again, from the (tiny) amount of things I’ve read, I’ve concluded (not definitely, I never stop challenging my own views) that antioxidants are good within foods. Not as supplements. You need to give your body the tools to build its own proper armour and use it whenever it's needed.

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    4. (last one!)
      I know, long comment, sorry. But I would GREATLY appreciate if you could answer my five questions/comments (the one about AGEs and the 4 about insulin resistance). My wife has AD history in her family and I would like to help their parents get the best advice possible. But I’m not sure that telling them ‘Increase your saturated fat and cholesterol intake, drop these oils, cut on potatoes and move more’ is necessarily the best advice. Improvement? I guess so. BEST advice? Not convinced. I hope that together we can come to a better and clearer conclusion.

      Thanks for you time and your really interesting blog (I’m devouring your articles on cancer, waiting for the next ones… and yes, I might have some questions/comments/oppositions too on this subject).

      P.S. : sorry if sometimes I have bad English, I actually speak French (you know, those north of the border neighbours in Quebec?)

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    5. Hi there,

      Thanks for your questions. (And for reading the article!) I have a lot to say in response. Please give me some time to get my thoughts together, as those questions deserve more than a quick two-minute reply. If you'd like, feel free to email me privately and we can take the discussion off the blog (tuitnutrition [at] gmail [dot] com). Otherwise, I'll just post here in the comments, or maybe even make a separate blog post dedicated to answering them. That might be a good idea, actually.

      In the meantime, I invite you to check out a guest post I wrote for Robb Wolf's site in response to a podcast interview he did with Dr. Perlmutter, the author of Grain Brain. Dr. Perlmutter was adamant about pretty much everyone, across the board, needing a low-carb diet, and actually, I disagree. (People were very alarmed by this idea, and I wanted to cool the flames.) What IS required is lifelong GOOD BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL and maintenance of insulin sensitivity. If someone can achieve that while consuming potatoes, parsnips, fruit, and even grains and white sugar, then I see no reason for those foods to be eliminated. (And I certainly believe there ARE people who fit this description. I'll go into more detail on this in the post I write, or the comment I'll leave...whichever I decide to do.) I really am not a low-carb zealot. I think the strategy that might--MIGHT--prevent Alzheimer's is different from the one that might--MIGHT--be required to POSSIBLY *reverse* the disease after it has already taken hold and "brain damage" (for lack of a better phrase) is severe and longstanding. I usually try to avoid the always/never/will/will not rhetoric, because I think the one thing we can say for sure with a lot regarding modern medicine is that we *are NOT sure.* We have our best guesses based on the currently available data, and we may well be proven wrong. (Remember, doctors used to *recommend* smoking as a way to relax...)

      Anyway, here's the post I mentioned: http://robbwolf.com/2013/10/16/carbohydrates-missing-forest-trees/

      A past post on my own blog will also give you some sense of my thoughts on the suitability of carbohydrate reduction -- it's not the best strategy for everyone. I understand the biochemistry & physiology (at least somewhat), and I am not afraid or ashamed to say that I am not so narrow-minded as to be wedded to either extreme -- ketogenic all the time, or tons of carbs. The wide spectrum of humanity can and does seem to thrive on varying degrees of macronutrient variation:

      http://www.tuitnutrition.com/2014/09/the-carb-controversy.html

      More coming soon.

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    6. Hi Amy,
      thanks for the (really) quick answer. It's greatly appreciated. Thank you also for the links; I had already read The Carb Controversy and now I've read the one on Wolf's blog. I must admit admit that it was a really great read: well written and definitely well balanced. You wrote almost exactly what I think (it was quite in line with the comments I made in my other posts). So yes, we share more than what sets us apart!

      I could e-mail you personnaly but I think that an eventual discussion between us could also benefit your readership. It's up to you: either here, on another article ou privately by e-mail, I don't really mind. As long as we can elucidate the mystery behind the best ways to prevent AD.
      Eagerly waiting for the 'more coming soon'!

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  7. Amy: Why not pitch a journalistic, lay-friendly article to AARP magazine or Senior Living magazine - interviews with people who have done the research etc.?

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    1. Good idea. A friend of mine in another state gave a talk about this topic to the Rotary Club, and she said they went nuts for it. There's a hunger out there for these ideas, and so few people who know enough to deliver the right information. I just need to get over my self-confidence issues and reassure myself that I *do* know what I'm talking about!

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  8. Amy, have you contacted or been contacted by Filmmaker Max Lugavere who is doing a documentary called Breadhead?

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    1. Yes, actually, Max and I arranged for me to offer a free nutrition consultation to people who contributed over a certain amount of money to help fund/kickstart his documentary. I never heard from anyone, so I'm guessing no one met that threshold. But I have some big news coming out later this week regarding nutrition & Alzheimer's. :)

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    2. I guess I was one of those who didn't meet the threshold for your consultation on Kickstarter. I have two high school friends who have Alzheimer's, one being my high school boy friend. He is presently in a vegetative state, I understand. Very sad and upsetting.

      I am looking forward to your big news. Thank you for persevering with your info. You may be just a bit ahead of your time so hang in there until the world catches up.

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  9. I have read quite a bit about the damage caused by added and concentrated fructose e.g. via sugar, hfcs, fruit juice, dried fruit, agave, maple syrup etc. Dr Robert Lustig has done a lot of research on this. What are your thoughts?

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    1. I agree about the "added fructose" from HFCS, regular corn syrup, agave, etc. And I don't think anyone needs to be drinking liquid sugar (fruit juice). But I do think that for active, insulin-sensitive people, fruits in whole-food form can be included in a diet. But not all day, every day, and the idea of starting the day with a huge fruit smoothie and jumping right on the blood sugar rollercoaster is ludicrous, even for "healthy" people. If a young, lean, fit, active Crossfitter wants to have a banana after a workout, I don't see a problem with that. For an obese diabetic, not so much. For someone with severe Alzheimer's, not recommended. There really is no "one size fits all" with this. Some people will be so metabolically compromised after a lifetime of poor diet & lifestyle that they really can't tolerate more than just small amounts of carbohydrate from *any* source, be it fruit, sweet potatoes, beans, milk, or candy bars. But other people, who have maintained good metabolic & mitochondrial flexibility, have a little more wiggle room regarding quantity and quality of carbs.

      I know about the hepatic metabolism of fructose, and even so, I don't think singling out isolated or concentrated fructose as a "worse" culprit than any other wacky element of the modern diet & lifestyle is especially helpful. It's got some strikes against it, definitely. But it's not the sole element causing diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and it shouldn't be singled out as such. (And all that said, I'm a fan of Lustig's work! Every bit of the puzzle helps.)

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  10. I have just read your Weston Price Foundation article. I think the lack of uptake from your message is the utter complexity of the biochemistry involved! I am a university researcher, but with only a first year undergraduate course in biology, and it is very difficult to grasp the concepts!

    I really appreciate that you admit the science is uncertain. As uncomfortable as it makes us, 'settled science' in complex areas takes what feels like an overwhelming lines of evidence all pointing in the same direction to be convincing.

    That being said, I'm going to add some medium chain triglycerides (I mean coconut oil!) now!

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    1. Yes, I guess that article was a little heavy on the science. In my e-book, I think I did a better job of translating the science-speak into plain English. That was really the whole point of writing it, actually: to present the research findings to laypeople in a way they could understand, along with concrete action steps they could take *now,* in order to potentially prevent, slow, and possibly even reverse cognitive decline.

      Enjoy you coconut oil! It's delish! ;-)

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